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The General Dentistry Yellowknife Families Rely On

PLEASE NOTE: The content provided here is for informational purposes only and was not designed to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease. Please consult your physician/dentist with any questions or concerns you may have regarding your condition.


Dental fillings are the most common procedure that dentists perform. At Adam Dental Clinic, we utilize the best materials available in dentistry. In 1989, Adam Dental Clinic stopped using mercury-based amalgam fillings -- we now utilize only composite restorations, which are glass particle-based. We also utilize the best bonding agents to enable this material to actually bond to the tooth structure.


Although permanent teeth were meant to last a lifetime, there are a number of reasons why tooth extraction may be needed. A very common reason involves a tooth that is too badly damaged, from trauma or decay, to be repaired. Other reasons include:

A Crowded Mouth
Sometimes the dentist recommends extracting teeth to prepare the mouth for orthodontics. The goal of orthodontics is to properly align the teeth, which may not be possible if your teeth are too big for your mouth. Likewise if a tooth cannot break through the gum (erupt) because there is not enough room in the mouth for it, your dentist may recommend extracting it.

If tooth decay or damage extends to the pulp, the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels, bacteria in the mouth can enter the pulp, leading to infection. Often this can be corrected with root canal therapy, but if the infection is so severe that antibiotics or root canal therapy can’t cure it, extraction may be needed to prevent the spread of infection.

Risk of Infection
If your immune system is compromised -- for example, if you are receiving chemotherapy or having an organ transplant -- the risk of infection in a particular tooth may be reason enough to extract the tooth.

Periodontal (Gum) Disease
If periodontal disease, an infection of the tissues and bones that surround and support teeth, have caused loosening of the teeth, it may be necessary to extract the tooth or teeth.

What to Expect with Tooth Extraction?
Dentist and oral surgeons perform tooth extractions. Before extracting the tooth, your dentist will give you an injection of a local anesthetic to numb the area where the tooth will be removed.

Once the tooth has been extracted, a blood clot usually forms in the socket. The dentist will pack down a gauze pad on it to help stop the bleeding. Sometimes the dentist will place a few stitches, usually self-dissolving, to close the gum edges over the extraction site.

Sometimes, the blood clot in the socket breaks loose, exposing the bone in the socket. This is a painful condition called dry socket. If this happens, your dentist will likely place a sedative dressing over the socket for a few days to protect it as a new clot forms.

Wisdom Teeth Extractions

Why It Is Done
A wisdom tooth is extracted to correct an actual problem or to prevent problems that may come up in the future. Some of the problems that can occur when wisdom teeth come in are:

  • Your jaw may not be large enough for them, and they may become impacted and unable to break through your gums.
  • Your wisdom teeth may break part way through your gums, causing a flap of gum tissue to grow over them. Food and germs can get trapped under the flap and cause your gums to become red, swollen, and painful. These are signs of infection.
  • More serious problems can develop from impacted teeth, such as infection, damage to other teeth and bone, or a cyst.
  • One or more of your wisdom teeth may come in at an awkward angle, with the top of the tooth facing forward, backward, or to either side.

Wisdom Tooth Extraction Procedure
An oral and maxillofacial surgeon or your dentist can remove (extract) a wisdom tooth. The procedure often can be done in the dentist or surgeon's office. You may have the surgery in the hospital, especially if you are having all your wisdom teeth pulled at one time or if you are at high risk for complications.

If you have any infections, surgery will usually be delayed until the infection has cleared up. Your doctor or dentist may have you take antibiotics to help heal the infection.

Before removing a wisdom tooth, your dentist will give you local anesthetic to numb the area where the tooth will be removed. A general anesthetic may be used, especially if several or all of your wisdom teeth will be removed at the same time. A general anesthetic prevents pain in the whole body and will cause you to sleep through the procedure. Your dentist will probably recommend that you don't eat or drink after midnight on the night before surgery so that you are prepared for the anesthetic.

To remove the wisdom tooth, your dentist will open up the gum tissue over the tooth and take out any bone that is covering the tooth. He or she will separate the tissue connecting the tooth to the bone and then remove the tooth. Sometimes the dentist will cut the tooth into smaller pieces to make it easier to remove.

After the tooth is removed, you may need stiches. Some stitches dissolve over time and some have to be removed after a few days. Your dentist will tell you whether your stitches need to be removed. A folded cotton gauze pad placed over the wound will help stop the bleeding.

What to Expect After Surgery
In most cases, the recovery period lasts only a few days. Take painkillers as prescribed by your dentist or oral surgeon. The following tips will help speed your recovery.

  • Bite gently on the gauze pad periodically, and change pads as they become soaked with blood. Call your dentist or oral surgeon if you still have bleeding 24 hours after your surgery.
  • While your mouth is numb, be careful not to bite the inside of your cheek or lip, or your tongue.
  • Do not lie flat. This may prolong bleeding. Prop up your head with pillows.
  • Try using an ice pack on the outside of your cheek. Apply for 15 to 20 minutes at a time for the first 24 hours. You can use moist heat-such as a washcloth soaked in warm water and wrung out-for the following 2 or 3 days.
  • Relax after surgery. Physical activity may increase bleeding.
  • Eat soft foods, such as Jell-O, pudding, or soup. Gradually add solid foods to your diet as healing progresses.
  • After the first day, gently rinse your mouth with warm salt water several times a day to reduce swelling and relieve pain. You can make your own salt water by mixing 1 tsp (5 g) of salt in a medium-sized glass [8 fl oz (240 mL)] of warm water.
  • Do not smoke for at least 24 hours after your surgery. The sucking motion can loosen the clot and delay healing.
  • Also, smoking decreases the blood supply and can bring germs and contaminants to the surgery area.
  • Avoid rubbing the area with your tongue or touching it with your fingers.
  • Continue to brush your teeth and tongue carefully.
  • Your dentist will remove the stitches after a few days, if needed.


When a tooth is broken and is beyond repair with a filling, a crown (or cap) is often the chosen restoration. Crowns strengthen and restore the remaining tooth structure and improve the appearance of teeth.

It typically takes two dental visits to have a crown placed. During your first visit, the tooth to be capped is prepared for the crown by reducing it in size. Your dentist then takes an impression of your tooth and will use that to create a perfectly fitting crown. A temporary crown is placed to keep your tooth protected and you comfortable while your permanent crown is fabricated. On your second visit, the temporary crown is removed and the permanent crown will be fitted over your tooth and bonded or cemented in place.

Newer technology, such as computer-designed crowns, are now very popular in dentistry. The biggest benefit of this is that a crown can be prepared and cemented in one visit.


A bridge is a custom device anchored to neighbouring teeth that replaces one or more missing teeth. When a lost tooth is replaced with bridgework, the teeth on either side of the missing tooth are prepared as crowns to serve as abutments to hold the prosthetic (replacement) tooth in place. Crowns and bridges are most often made from superior materials such as semiprecious or precious metals, porcelain, or a fused combination of the two. Aesthetics, function, and tissue compatibility are considered when selecting the material most suitable for you. Bridges are bonded to the teeth and are not removable. Adam Dental Clinic does not use semi-precious metal.

What to Expect:

First Appointment
The first appointment usually takes between 1-3 hours, depending on how much work you are having done. During the preparation, a small amount of the surface of the tooth is usually removed under local anaesthetic. After impressions are taken, temporary restorations are fabricated, which remain on your teeth until the fit appointment. If the tooth/teeth have existing fillings, the dentist may need to remove those as part of the procedure. The temporary material is porous and may stain with heavily coloured food and drinks, (i.e. curries, red wine and black coffee) so try to avoid these if possible.

How to Clean Temporary Restorations
Brush your teeth as normal; if the temporaries are joined together you will not be able to floss. Using a mouthwash such as Listerine® Total Care or Colgate® FluoriGard will help.

How Will My Teeth Feel After the Appointment?
Whenever dental treatment is carried out, there is a risk that inflammation of the dental nerve or gums may occur. This may result in sensitivity or soreness and will settle within a few days or weeks.

In a small portion of cases the nerve may be damaged, and the area may not settle. The risk is increased where there is a history of decay, damage or trauma to the tooth. In these cases, it may be necessary for the tooth to have root canal treatment.

There can be a 2-3-week interval period between the preparation appointment and the fitting of the porcelain restoration. In the rare circumstance there can be unexpected delays, so please allow an additional 2-3 weeks before significant social events.

During this phase it is quite normal to feel anxious and nervous at the prospect of a completely new look. The quality of the porcelain is far superior to the acrylic of temporaries and will feel smooth to the tongue. Porcelain is highly polished and has superb stain-resistant properties.

The Fit Appointment
We normally allocate 1-1.5 hours for the fit of the porcelain restoration, usually under local anaesthetic. The permanent restorations are bonded in place using the latest-dentine bonding agent for superior strength. This bond often causes sensitivity, sometimes for several weeks.

Avoid very hot or cold food and drinks. We may place a fluoride varnish and give you a home fluoride kit to treat this.

How Long Will The Bridge Last?
It is Important to maintain good oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing. Regular hygiene appointments and fluoride application, along with a good diet, help to prolong the restorations.

Dental Implants

Dental implants are designed to provide a foundation for replacement teeth that look, feel, and function like natural teeth. The person who has lost teeth regains the ability to eat virtually anything and can smile with confidence, knowing that teeth appear natural and that facial contours will be preserved.

The implants themselves are tiny titanium posts, which are placed into the jawbone where teeth are missing. The bone grows around the titanium, creating a strong foundation for artificial teeth. In addition, implants can help preserve facial structure, preventing bone deterioration, which occurs when teeth are missing.

If, like many others, you feel implant dentistry is the choice for you, we ask that you undergo a dental/radiographic examination, health history and CT scan. During these consultation visits, your specific needs and considerations will be addressed by either Dr. Ghannad -- our periodontal specialist -- or by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon referred to you by our practice. Your questions and concerns are important to us and our team will work with you very closely to help make your procedure a success.
Implant Procedure
Dental implants are metal anchors, which act as tooth root substitutes. They are surgically placed into the jawbone. Small posts are then attached to the implant. These posts provide stable anchors for artificial replacement teeth.

For most patients, the placement of dental implants involves two surgical procedures. First, implants are placed within your jawbone. For the first three to six months following surgery, the implants are beneath the surface of the gums, gradually allowing the bone to grow. You should be able to wear temporary dentures and eat a soft diet during this time.

After the implant has integrated to the jawbone, the second phase begins. The surgeon will uncover the implants and attach a small healing collar. After 4 - 6 weeks the restorative dentist will be able to start making your new teeth. An impression must be taken. Then posts or attachments can be connected to the implants. The teeth replacements are then made over the posts or attachments. The entire procedure usually takes six to eight months. Implants today provide the best way to replace missing teeth, and to bring them closely to how our own teeth felt.

Root Canal

A root canal is one of the most common dental procedures, with over 14 million performed every year. This simple treatment can save your natural teeth and prevent the need of dental implants or bridges.

At the center of your tooth is a collection of blood vessels known as ‘pulp’ that helps to build the surrounding tooth. Infection of the pulp can be caused by trauma to the tooth, decay, cracks, chips or repeated dental work.

If you experience visible injury, sensitivity to temperature or pain in the tooth and gums, your dentist will most likely recommend a root canal to remove the diseased pulp and prevent further damage. The injured pulp is removed and the hollow root of the tooth is thoroughly cleaned and sealed. Root canals are usually done using local anesthetic and may be completed in one or more visits depending on the treatment required.

Your dentist will help you to decide on the best type of restoration to protect your tooth. It is rare for root canal patients to experience complications, but if a problem does occur, we are available at all times to respond. As always, a good oral hygiene routine will help to prevent problems.

Generally, a root canal is all that is needed to save a tooth with injured pulp. Occasionally, this non-surgical procedure may not be sufficient to heal the tooth and surgery may be required, but root canals are generally effective in 90% of cases. To prevent the tooth from breaking, a crown is highly advised.

Though 90% of root canals we perform are completed in one appointment, root canal therapy may take more the one appointment to complete. Since anesthetic has been used, your lips, tongue and the roof of your mouth may be numb for several hours after your appointment. Avoid chewing and hot beverages until the numbness has worn off.

Between appointments until the tooth is fully restored, it is common (and not a problem) for a small portion of your temporary filling to wear away or break off. If the entire filling falls out or if the temporary crown comes off, call our office to arrange a time so it can be replaced.

It is normal to experience some discomfort for several days after a root canal appointment. To control discomfort, take the pain medication prescribed by the dentist as recommended.

If antibiotics are prescribed, continue to take them as directed by your dentist, even if all signs and symptoms of infection are gone. To protect the tooth and keep the temporary in place, avoid eating hard and sticky foods (chewing gum) and if possible, chew on the opposite side of your mouth. Continue to brush and floss normally.

Usually, the last step in root canal treatment is the placement of a crown on the tooth. A crown will protect the tooth from breaking in the future.

If your bite feels uneven, if you have signs of swelling or increased pain, or if you have any other questions or concerns, Please call our office at 867-873-2775.


Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on preventing problems caused by an irregular bite through “braces.” Orthodontists are trained in dealing with facial abnormalities and disorders of the jaw. A parent may consult an orthodontist after receiving a referral from their child's general dentist.

Any orthodontic problem may be classified as a malocclusion, or "bad bite." Orthodontic treatment can be used to correct:

  • Misaligned, crooked or crowded teeth
  • Missing teeth
  • Extra teeth
  • Misaligned or incorrect jaw position
  • A disorder of the jaw joint

In most cases, the ideal time for orthodontic treatment is between the ages of 10 and 14, however it is possible to have interceptive treatment between the ages of 8 and 10. Although the re-alignment of teeth can be done at any age, the adult mouth must overcome already-positioned facial bones and jaw structure and may require more than one type of orthodontic treatment and can sometimes involve surgery.

Braces, also called fixed orthodontic appliances, generally come in four varieties:

  • Brackets, which may be metal or plastic, clear or tooth-coloured, that are bonded to teeth
  • Lingual-type brackets that attach to the back of teeth, hidden from view
  • Metal bands that wrap around the teeth
  • Invisalign® clear aligners

All four types use wires to move the teeth to the desired position.

Because the rate and chances of cavities and gingivitis increase while wearing braces, it is important to maintain a thorough dental health routine that includes regular brushing with fluoride toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush, as food becomes easily lodged in the braces. Daily flossing between the teeth and the braces is essential as are cleanings by hygienist every six months or as recommended.

It is also a good idea to limit sugar and starch intake, as debris left behind from these types of foods may turn into damaging acids, which may harm teeth and gums and promote plaque formation. Also avoid hard or sticky snacks that may be difficult to remove from the wires and brackets. This includes foods such as popcorn, hard or chewy candy, caramel and nuts.

At our office, we only provide orthodontic services provided by qualified certified orthodontists registered in Canada. Hence, all our orthodontic treatment is transferable to any other certified orthodontist in Canada or anywhere else.